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Theme 2 Abstracts

Presenter / Title / Theme / Institution Abstract
Yun Wang
Theme 2
Mercy College; USA
'A Crossroad to the Current U.S. Undergraduate Computer Science Education (UCSE) - Challenges and Opportunities in the Information Society'
The current U.S. UCSE has been called for remodeling from both the corporate world and the general public. The underlying reason is to insure that the UCSE is able to educate a globally competitive IT workforce for the U.S. On-line courses, virtual libraries, artificial intelligence labs ... all these new learning environments provide students with up-to-date, interactive, and convenient features. Updated curricula with object orientation programming, Internet and Intranet technology, and graphical user interface applications oppose questions to the fairness of paper-pencil exams. How does the traditional classroom-lecture teaching method shape itself to meet IT challenges? What type of role will distance learning play? This paper analyzes both cons and pros of the current UCSE, provides feasible implementations, and explores other innovated approaches. This paper presents actual and effective practices conducted at the author's institution and they are focused on faculty development, student-faculty evaluation, lab facilities, and industry cooperation.
Veljko A. Spasic
Theme 2
Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, University of Belgrade; Yugoslavia
'Intermat - Internet Based Information System for Support of Research and Education on Mathematics'
Internet based information systems are new advances that support development in various fields of our society, where research and education are among the most important. This paper presents INTERMAT - Internet based multimedia information system we developed for support of research and education in mathematics. Main aims, functions and elements of the system are presented as well as the structure and implementation. Some of the obtained results are discussed.
Veljko A. Spasic
Theme 2
Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, University of Belgrade; Yugoslavia
'Virtual Experiment in Bio-Medicine'
Among various methods and approaches that are present in computerized learning, especially in today's Internet based distance learning, virtual experiment is of fundamental role. The possibility to learn by self paced experimenting with virtual, simulated systems, opens new horizons. In the paper we discuss some pro and contra arguments relating virtual experimenting method as well as describe two of our contributions to the field of virtual experiment: GLUCOMAT - virtual system that simulates homeostatic glucose regulation in human, and PRODONT - expert system for supporting virtual experiment in dentistry.
Marty Beech
Theme 2
Florida State University; USA
'Florida's Curriculum Planning Tool'
The "Curriculum Planning Tool" (CPT) is a simple electronic performance support system developed by the Center for Performance Technology at Florida State University for the Florida Department of Education (DOE) to help teachers plan lessons using Florida's Sunshine State Standards. The CPT includes a bank of learning activities linked to the standards and a wizard to help teachers develop additional activities following the critical components of instructional planning. The CPT also shows the correlation of the standards to the statewide testing program. The CPT is available in different versions for elementary and secondary teachers. In the secondary version learning activities are cross-referenced to the Course Descriptions used in Florida's secondary programs. The CPT was produced on a CD-ROM and may be downloaded from the Florida DOE Homepage. Additional instructional activities are available on the DOE website and can be downloaded.
John Pisapia
Theme 2
Florida Atlantic University; USA
'The Elementary Computer Initiative: Technical Support'
This three year study describes the impact of school district efforts to support a computer initiative which placed five computers and an inkjet color printer in each regular elementary classroom. Data were collected through classroom observations, focus group interviews, teacher surveys, and software surveys to determine the impact of efforts to train teachers, and install and maintain the technical hardware, and the courseware required to support teacher efforts. The study concluded that: * Training at the school district level was adequate but school in-service was inadequate. Training on software content was adequate but training on development of materials and classroom management was less adequate. * Instructional support from fellow teachers, as a source of support, decreased in year two but support from: (1) technology committee, (2) school computer contacts, and (3) technology instructors improved in year two. * Administrative support from the principal was less adequate. * Administrative barriers: Lack of planning time is most difficult barrier to overcome. Time in the school schedule is also seen as a moderately difficult barrier. * Technical problems with (1) network and hardware less than moderately difficult and (2) printers more than moderately difficult.
Mark Geary
Theme 2
Seminole County Public Schools; USA
'Making it Work, BEFORE You Buy It'
This presentation draws upon guidelines from the field of heuristic evaluation to help software purchasers decide what to look for and what questions to ask when evaluating software. As instructors and administrators get more involved with distance learning uses and applications, the need to effectively evaluate the software systems and web design grows. In the field of computer science and engineering, heuristic evaluation of the software user interface is a means to create "user-friendly" software. Unfortunately, what is user-friendly to a software developer, and what is user-friendly to a teacher or student end-user may be something entirely different. Heuristic evaluation does point the way to what is truly USABLE software and allows decision makers to make rational, unbiased decisions about their purchases. This program will provide an overview of heuristic evaluation as it can be applied to educational software.
Nancy Deal
Theme 2
Buffalo State College; USA
'The CyberQuest: A Focused Tool for Evaluating Web Resources'
The proposed presentation will describe a scaffolding activity designed to help pre- and inservice teachers evaluate and use the Internet effectively in the classroom. The CyberQuest is a cooperative learning exercise in which participants adopt a role-play scenario to evaluate Web resources and to suggest strategies for integrating the Internet into instruction. CyberQuests utilize Cyberguides developed by the SCORE project, to focus teachers' evaluation on quality Internet materials to enhance the study of literature and the language arts. The process, however, can be applied to other disciplines as well. The presentation will review the activity's process, explain roles, and introduce several Cyberguides for potential classroom use. Results of CyberQuests conducted with pre- and inservice teachers will also be shared. The model has proved useful for teacher preparation and staff development to extend teachers' familiarity with quality Web resources and to provide a model for classroom implementation at all educational levels.
T. Rick Whiteley
Theme 2
Department of Business Administration, West Virginia State College; Canada
'Developing Critical-Thinking Skills Via Internet-based Learning Modules'
Case study analysis is a common pedagogical approach used in university business courses. To effectively analyze cases, students must know the relevant subject area (knowledge), understand the meaning of this knowledge (comprehension), use abstract ideas in actual situations (application), decompose the case material into its constituent parts (analysis), develop new ideas based on the information analyzed (synthesis), and select the appropriate theories, concepts, or techniques to solve a particular problem (evaluation) (see Bloom's Taxonomy). Developing critical-thinking or problem-solving skills is very difficult for most students, no matter what subject area is under consideration. To help students develop the prerequisite skills for effective case or problem analysis in the area of marketing, self-paced learning modules, created using HTML, were developed. Each module includes a set of short marketing situations; a set of guiding questions for each situation, questions which become more general as the student progresses through the program; a predetermined list of possible (correct and incorrect) responses to each question; and separately accessed explanations for each response. Linking this program to the instructor's website allows for time-independent, external student access.
Dulal Chandra Kar
Theme 2
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University; USA
'A Real-Time Software System for Detecting Plagiarism in Programming Assignments'
Plagiarism in assignments in computer programming courses is on the rise. There are many factors that contribute to this trend. The recent innovation in computer technology has made sharing, copying, and modifying a program as easy as "cut-and-paste." Lured by good job market, many ill-prepared students are enrolling in programming courses and some of them are eventually resorting to plagiarism out of desperation to survive in a large class where no or little individual help is available from the instructor. Detection of plagiarism by manual inspection in a large class is very laborious, time-consuming, and error-prone. In this paper, we introduce and discuss different techniques for automatic detection of plagiarism and their suitability for real-time implementations. Among all known techniques, the techniques based on statistics of symbols, keywords, and user-defined words found in source programs are relatively easy to implement. Based on some statistical technique, in this paper, we propose a simple real-time software system that can detect cases of plagiarism very efficiently. The system receives a student's program submitted from any machine connected to Internet and immediately checks for similarity with archived programs of other students. They system is found to be very effective and reliable to detect and deter plagiarism in large classes.
Gregg Miller
Theme 2
College of Education; USA
'Student Perceptions of Their Technology Skills Before and After a Basic Computer Applications Course: A Three Year Study'
This paper includes the results of a three-year study of education students involved in a basic computer applications course. The study reports findings across several demographics including: academic rank, area of teacher certification, ethnicity, access to a computer outside of class, and type of computer used. Information is also provided regarding student performance levels related to the specified demographics. The overall purpose of the study was to examine student reactions to a set of 58 items or "Can You.....?" questions included in a survey form at the start of the course and again at the end of the course. The 58 items were organized around specific course topics and basic technology competencies required for teacher certification including: 2) Basic File and Document Management, 2) Operating System Basics, 3) Word Processing and Desktop Publishing, 4 Spreadsheets, 5) Databases, 6) Networking, 7) E-mail, 8) Audio-Visual, and 9) Multimedia. The study also examined these students' gains on the pre to post survey and performance in the course. Comparisons were also made between student reported entry level skills across the three years of the study. The final results of the study will be provided to conference participants.
Kate J. Kemker
Theme 2
Florida Center for Instructional Technology; USA
'How to Create a Technology Preview Center'
Technology preview centers are an avenue to provide in-service and pre-service teachers with the opportunity to preview software before purchasing it for their schools. A preview center can supply in-service teachers and administrators with training in the latest technology. The Florida Center for Instructional Technology (FCIT) is a preview center located at the University of South Florida and serves the ten county surrounding district. FCIT is equipped with thirty computers (Macintosh and Windows), thousands of donated software titles, and many other related hardware devices. As part of university wide consortium, FCIT supports training of faculty to integrate technology into their classroom and provides opportunities for education majors to visit the center to evaluate software as a part of their course of study. This session will focus on establishing and maintaining a preview center, including methods of building relationships with major software and hardware vendors to provide technology training for teachers.
Amy Baylor
Theme 2
Florida State University; USA
'Foundations for Designing MIMIC, an Intelligent-Agent Based Learning Environment'
MIMIC (Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively) is a proposed intelligent agent-based learning environment for perhaps the most critical component of pre-service teacher education: instructional design skills. As part of the system, instructional design case studies will be multimedia-enhanced, with video, animation and graphics so as to provide an engaging and realistic learning experience on the Internet. Through working with these cases, the learner will interact with three pedagogical agents, each reflecting a different instructional design perspective. The 20-minute presentation will describe this framework in more detail and demonstrate the MIMIC prototype system. The theoretical foundations contributing to MIMIC's potential to shape the thinking of pre-service teachers will also be discussed.
Amy Baylor
Theme 2
Florida State University; USA
'What are the Possibilities of Intelligent Agents for Education?'
This 20-minute session will discuss the possibilities of using intelligent agents for education and demonstrate an implementation of intelligent agents in education. Specifically, the session will discuss what are intelligent agents, the value of agents for education, and the following specific educational uses: 1) as a tool for the learner; 2) as a tool for the instructor; 3) comprising an intelligent learning environment; and, 4) for students to learn through designing agents. Additionally, three cognitive design considerations for agent-based learning environments will be presented.
Richard R. Eckert
Theme 2
SUNY Binghamton; USA
'An Interactive, Remote-Controlled Computer Projection System for Use in a Large Classroom Environment'
In this paper we describe an inexpensive, Windows/PC-based, virtual blackboard that can be controlled at a distance by a classroom instructor and/or students in the class. One component of our system is a wireless mouse emulator that is implemented using a software-controlled standard red laser pointer. A video camera looks at the projected screen and feeds its output to the computer. Our programs detect the location of the laser beam, map it to the screen coordinates, and move the system mouse cursor accordingly. With this system the instructor is no longer tethered to the computer. Another component is software that permits communication between student laptop computers and the instructor's computer over a local network. With it, students can make requests from their laptops to take control of the main computer's pointer device and keyboard. Both systems can dramatically enhance interactivity between student and instructor in a large classroom environment.
Robert A. Schultz
Theme 2
Woodbury University; USA
'Access to Technology at Woodbury University'
In the fall of 1997, nearly 3 years ago, Woodbury inaugurated its Access to Technology program. Woodbury University is small, private, and provides professional education in bachelors and masters degree programs. We determined that we needed to go beyond just computer basics or even just literacy to computer fluency, the ability to use information technology easily and wherever its use is appropriate. To that end, we decided to put notebook computers in the hands of each of our undergraduate students. The issues raised included: What hardware, what software, what training for students, what training for faculty, and what other support should we provide. We struggled with these issues and revised our answers over the course of the program. Surveys indicate that the program as met many of our objectives.
Grace E. Jamieson
Theme 2
Calabash Educational Software; Canada
'Developing an Internet-based Subject Pathfinder for K-5 Students'
School children of all ages are increasingly becoming part of the Internet generation. However, the needs and skills (e.g., cognitive, technological) of the younger members of this group (i.e., grades K-5) are quite different from those of the older members of the group (i.e., grades 6-12). For this reason, Internet subject-pathfinders for the younger students need to be designed with these concerns in mind. The content and the physical design of sites that may be appropriate for the older students may not be appropriate for the younger students. For example, the graphics, icons, and terminology used in the design of such pathfinders must be understandable to the younger students. One such pathfinder, based on the new curriculum guidelines for the Province of Ontario in Canada is illustrated. Links to subject sites and files include the areas of science, history, geography, mathematics, art, and literature.
Manolis Barbounis
Theme 2
University of Athens; Greece
'Students' Solutions Diagnosis Based on Limited Evidences'
Teachers or students rarely use tutoring systems or tools capable to diagnose students' solutions in classrooms or at home. The main reason is that tutoring systems request from the students either to solve their exercises in the systems environment or at least to enter their analytical solutions into the systems. An answer to the issue is the development of intelligent diagnostic engines requiring limited evidences for the identification of the students' errors. In this paper is presented DIUME, an intelligent diagnostic engine developed and tested in the University of Athens applicable to students' solutions diagnosis. Its diagnostic mechanism needs only a limited but adequate for the diagnostic process, number of steps of a student's solution. DIUME acquires interactively from the user the required information in order to identify all the existing errors in a solution. It can diagnose students' solutions with many steps in a variety of problems.
David S. McCurry
Theme 2
Monmouth University; USA
'Once and Future Technology Innovations in Teacher Preparation: Video Microteaching in a Reflective Practice World'
Microteaching with video recording as a feedback method has been used in teacher preparation since the mid-1960s. A substantial amount of research stretching back 30 years has mostly supported what was once innovative but is now ritualized technology use. The paper explores the historical use of video-assisted microteaching, the current emphasis on reflective practice, which can use new technologies (electronic journaling and portfolios), and the limitations of preservice teacher preparation programs in significantly changing attitudes and practices of future teachers. The paper describes an adaptation of video microteaching procedures to encourage critical self-reflection of performance and some of the limitations encountered. The changing contexts of performance expectations for new teachers are explored, especially in light of technology developments. A framework for using microteaching video data, along with other electronic data, as an electronic tool for gathering longitudinal information for assessment of student teachers is presented.
Kristina Mattson
Theme 2
University of West Florida; USA
'Technology and the Educational Process: The View From the Student Trenches'
Much debate has been generated over the use of technology in the classroom and the use of technology instead of the traditional classroom; i.e., the Internet, distance learning, et.al. In the plethora of opinions and advertisements, what is often lost is the student view: i.e., how do students see the current instructional methods and outcomes in comparison to what they perceive as their needs when they look at the workplace? The proposed presentation will look at a "typical" MBA program in a State university, together with the technological tools currently used within its coursework, and contrast it with what a new MBA holder sees as her needs to prepare her for the working world. It will also compare and contrast current student views of lecture, demonstration, case studies, computerized analysis tools, and Internet resources, as concerns their perceived effectiveness in the educational process in preparation for the world of work.
James A. Brown
Theme 2
Lehigh University; USA
'Strategic Synergy: Integrating Multiple Delivery Technologies'
Most organizations offering distance education programming began by using one delivery technology; satellite transmission, videoconferencing, cable, Internet, or some other system. However, the use of a single delivery technology limits both the size and character of potential distance education audiences. As distance education providers have attempted to increase and diversify their offerings, they have often been faced with the necessity of developing and using multiple delivery modes. The trick is to add new technologies in a manner that is cost-effective, creates opportunities for mutual support and synergy, and effectively service existing and new target market groups. This presentation will discuss how the process of integrating new technologies can be rationally planned and implemented. Based on Lehigh's experiences with satellite, videoconferencing, and Internet delivery modes, the presentation will concentrate on multiple uses of the same content, facilities design issues, technical and administrative staffing considerations, and the introduction of additional delivery systems to existing clients.
Iris Langer
Theme 2
Ministry of Education, Script; Luxembourg
'Courseware in Education: Evaluation of a Case-Based Intelligent Tutoring System'
The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a case-based intelligent tutoring system, developed for the education and further education of medical students and physicians in the field of internal medicine. In a pre and post-test frame, students were given the software to be used during one semester. In a follow-up survey at the end of the semester, students with low pre test values showed a significant increase in learning gains. Furthermore, the students' general study motivation showed a significant increase at the end of the semester, too. A change in the use and attitudes towards computers could not be observed. The results show that the majority of the students found the software helpful but they have had difficulties with the program's technical aspects and its general use. The students also stated that they accepted the program's content, but that they would learn better with a textbook.
Pietro Pantano
Theme 2
Universita della Calabria; Italy
'Use of Agents for Physics Learning'
The possibility to interact with characters living in virtual worlds and the use of pedagogical agents open several perspectives to make teaching materials more interesting and more efficient. In this paper we present an agent application for the Physics teaching. In particular, by using the MSAgent technology, we constructed some characters representing important people dealing with Physics and Astronomy, as such Galileo, Newton, Aristotle, Halley, Copernic and Kepler. These characters appear, move, listen to, and interact with each other according to some modalities which have been established by the user. We put two agents, Galileo and Aristotle, into an artificial historical context. These characters discuss among themselves the various scientific theories, they observe simulations of natural phenomena and they introduce some other characters. As in the Participatory Theatre, the user's role is not a passive one, but he can directly interact with the various characters.
Cecil W. Hutto
Theme 2
Northeast Louisiana University, College of Education and Human Development; USA
'Using HyperCard in Education and Research'
For a very reasonable cost, HyperCard is software that provides a wide variety of uses for educators and researchers in that it can be used to create interactive databases with multimedia capabilities (referred to as 'stacks'). Its viability is particularly evident in three ways: (1) There are thousands of HyperCard stacks already in existence and in the public domain, many with instructional or informative content presented in engaging fashions; (2) The educator will find HyperCard easy to learn and ideal for creating stacks to fill specific needs in presentation, assessment, and data management; (3) HyperCard has its own programming language, HyperScript, which is a high-level language (that is, 'almost English') and is well suited to introducing students to structured programming concepts and techniques without their having to learn, at the introductory level, programming languages with more esoteric grammar. Several HyperCard stacks and stack creation will be demonstrated.
Susan Graham
Theme 2
SmarterKids.com; USA
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The recent media frenzy surrounding standardized testing has created a culture of fear and misunderstanding among parents, students and educators. Families and teachers face the difficult task of tackling learning problems and finding solutions without terrifying and alienating students. Parents themselves find assessment tests to be inflexible and difficult to understand. In order to get down to the business of teaching, educators must find a way to locate the missing piece of the assessment strategy puzzle: the Internet. Susan Graham, director of education for SmarterKids.com and a long-time elementary school educator, will discuss methods for using the Internet to bridge the gap between school and home in order to find a personalized strategy for understanding and utilizing the benefits of standardized testing. By making assessment strategies more human and by helping parents to make test results more understandable, the Internet enables students and educators to match basic educational principles with individual methods of learning. Using the web, students, parents and educators will be able to build from assessment results by identifying the root problems indicated by scores.
Kevin Smith
Theme 2
Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane; Morocco
'SJPDesigner - A Flexible Tool for Generating Web-Based Presentations'
Using technological advances to enhance education in lower technological environments remains a great challenge for most of the world. Java applets are a technology that can be used anywhere without requiring the newest hardware. A Java applet is a platform independent object that can be used as an aid to traditional classroom presentation, or it can be accessed via an arbitrary WWW interface for review or for distance learning from anywhere in the world. However, the design of an effective applet-based presentation is very complicated for the non-programmer. We are working to make this technology usable to any educator. The tool we have developed, SJPDesigner, allows a non-programmer to create a useful and flexible instructional tool in a arbitrary discipline by using a simple English script together with a collection of separately prepared components. Objects such as text files, images, or Java simulations which have been written separately or acquired from a repository can be arranged in a cohesive presentation with no further knowledge of Java applets or layouts. The tool provides a simple graphical interface to edit and preview the presentation. We are using this approach to develop aids for core science classes across our engineering curriculum.
Charles R. Bauer
Theme 2
Illinois Institute of Technology; USA
'The Electronic Teaching Assistant'
Webwings is a web site developed cooperatively by the Academy of Model Aeronautics and the Outreach programs of the Indiana Academy, Ball State University. The purpose is to utilize aviation concepts, both model and full-scale airplanes, to provide middle school teachers with web-based materials that can be used to teach mathematics and science. Each application is a stand alone "Single Concept Learning Module". The web site and the materials contained are available free to anyone with internet access.
Charles R. Bauer
Theme 2
Illinois Institute of Technology; USA
'Middle School Web-Based Mathematics and Science Learning Materials'
The Electronic Teaching Assistant (ETA) was originally developed for use with distance-learning, web-based internet courses. The ETA is an interactive web page that allows student access to twenty-four hour assistance, as well as information concerning assignments, lecture notes, and simulations of algorithms. Successful teaching requires three items: knowledge, organization, and presentation. The ETA is part of presentation and can be used with other than distance education internet courses. The concept and implementation of the ETA was developed by a team of students while taking a course on presentation techniques for web-based courses.
Terence Cavanaugh
Theme 2
Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education; USA
'Using Repurposed Science Rich Feature Films in Science Instruction'
This investigation explored the use of repurposed content-rich entertainment videos (versus traditional educational videos) presented in either an active or passive educational setting in science classes. The subject matter of the videos focused on basic chemistry, scientific method, and the nature of life. The repurposed content-rich entertainment groups watched a StarTrek the Next Generation episode, and the other groups watched more traditional educational videos. Significant gains in test scores were found for repurposed entertainment video over traditional educational video groups. No significant differences were found in test scores between the active and passive setting groups or were noted for attitude change toward science between repurposed entertainment and traditional educational video groups. A significant difference was found in how the subject's attitudes changed for the active versus the passive watching groups. This study indicates that the use of content-rich entertainment video may provide an additional effective alternative for science education.
J. Christine Harmes
Theme 2
University of South Florida; USA
'Using JavaScript and LiveStage to Create Online Assessments'
Incorporating formative assessments into your courses is an easy way to help students gauge their progress and prepare for exams. One of the most important benefits of web-based quizzes is the immediate feedback provided. Using the web removes location and time constraints of the traditional classroom and allows students to work at their own pace. With JavaScript, you can easily build multiple-choice, drag-and-drop, or matching quizzes with detailed feedback and the option to send results to the instructor. LiveStage provides a simple interface for making interactive QuickTime movies such as matching, puzzles, and memory quizzes for students to assess their progress. These quizzes can be downloaded, then re-used without connecting to the Internet. Students can access these quizzes any time of the day or night, and can work through them as many times as necessary. This session will provide an overview of the tools, demonstrations of sample assessments, and support materials.

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